Because cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder, it runs in families, so family history is a risk factor. Although CF occurs in all races, it's most common in white people of Northern European ancestry.
Complications of cystic fibrosis can affect the respiratory, digestive and reproductive systems, as well as other organs.
Respiratory system complications:
• Damaged airways (bronchiectasis): Cystic fibrosis is one of the leading causes of bronchiectasis, a chronic lung condition with abnormal widening and scarring of the airways (bronchial tubes). This makes it harder to move air in and out of the lungs and clear mucus from the bronchial tubes.
• Chronic infections: Thick mucus in the lungs and sinuses provides an ideal breeding ground for bacteria and fungi. People with cystic fibrosis may often have sinus infections, bronchitis or pneumonia. Infection with bacteria that is resistant to antibiotics and difficult to treat is common.
• Growths in the nose (nasal polyps): Because the lining inside the nose is inflamed and swollen, it can develop soft, fleshy growths (polyps).
• Coughing up blood (hemoptysis): Bronchiectasis can occur next to blood vessels in the lungs. The combination of airway damage and infection can result in coughing up blood. Often this is only a small amount of blood, but it can also be life-threatening.
Courtesy: Mayo Clinic