Unplanned urbanization has changed the landscape of Dhaka over the years, leaving city dwellers in risk. The construction of high-rises has overthrown Dhaka’s lands and playgrounds. The consequences of unplanned urbanization are already evident in the poor living condition. Thus, vulnerabilities posed by poorly-planned urbanization are also increasing, as reflected through different disasters such as Chawkbazar chemical tragedy and the Bhashantek slum fire incident in the capital in recent times. On the other hand, Bangladesh was previously known for rural hazards especially flood, but these days urban hazards have become more frequent and harsher. Living in this overcrowded jungle of concrete, it is horrifying to imagine how would this town survive if an earthquake takes place? Would all the dwellers get time to evacuate? Is this city ready to tackle the consequences of a disaster like what we witnessed recently in Chawkbazar and Nimtoli?
Because of rapid and poorly planned urbanization, Dhaka is becoming more and more vulnerable to both natural and man-made disasters. Dhaka is characterized by the poor living standards, building construction without consideration of safety measures, lack of public awareness to hazards, and poorly enforced building code. Many buildings are rising without proper zoning concept and guidelines as city authorities allow poorly constructed buildings and old buildings to keep on existing. These buildings are very much vulnerable to earthquakes, fire hazards and other types of unforeseeable circumstances resulting to building collapse and causing unnecessary deaths. Considering all above, strengthening urban governance has become very much necessary from the part of the government and city planners. Disaster and crisis management needs to be ingrained in urban and national strategies.
“Experts from related arenas and different
stakeholders who are properly trained should
work together under one umbrella to
ensure a risk resilient infrastructure system”
There are numerous characteristics of current urban planning and development that pose serious threats to the life and wealth of city dwellers. For example, the lack of enforcement of building codes, planning permissions and regulatory investments are often linked to corruption, allow the transfer of risk from construction companies to those who live and work in the buildings. In order to ensure proper safety to reduce the disaster risk, it is of great concern to have a good control over the entire practice of design and construction of structures. Loss of human life and properties can considerably be reduced if the entire system can be brought under a well-planned strategy. Experts from related arena and different stakeholders who are properly trained should work together under one umbrella to ensure a risk resilient infrastructure system.
For making the cities safer and reducing urban disaster risks, there is no alternative other than building capacity of local government for ensuring effective services in emergency situations. It is very much important to strengthen the capacities of the city authorities and immediate disaster response teams. Proper implementation of land use, plan and enforcement of building code are also important to make an urban area more resilient to disasters.